What’s the Difference between Golang and Java
Go and Java are two of the most popular and widely used programming languages for backend development and general-purpose use. Both languages have been around for over two decades – Java was first released in 1995 by Sun Microsystems, while Go was developed in 2007 at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
At first glance, Go and Java have some similarities. They are both open sources, compiled, statically typed languages with garbage collection and built-in concurrency constructs. However, they differ in their design philosophy and usage. Java is an object-oriented language designed for portability that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Go takes a minimalist approach, omitting inheritance and other complex features present in Java.
In this article, we’ll comparison between Golang vs Java in-depth across various aspects like performance, concurrency, developer productivity, use cases, and adoption. This will provide insight into their relative strengths and help decide which language may be more suitable for a given application or system.
Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google in 2007. The designers of Go aimed to create a modern systems language providing built-in concurrency, garbage collection, and runtime reflection capabilities.
Some of the key aspects of Go are:
- Statically typed and compiled language with syntax loosely derived from C.
- Fast compilation times and lightweight execution with no virtual machine, using native machine code.
- Simplicity, omitting inheritance, generics, annotations, exceptions, etc.
- Built-in concurrency primitives using goroutines and channels.
- Automatic memory management using garbage collection.
- Standard library with batteries-included functionality.
Go excels as a language for building lightweight, high-performance networking and web services. It is also well-suited for cloud-native development and distributed systems. Go has become popular with startups and tech giants like Google, Uber, Dropbox, Docker, etc. It was the 10th most used language in the 2021 Stack Overflow developer survey.
Java is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages worldwide. It was created by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and publicly released in 1995.
Some key aspects of Java are:
- Object-oriented language with C/C++ style syntax.
- Provides portability by compiling to Java bytecode which runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
- Statically typed and compiled language.
- Automatic memory management using garbage collection.
- The rich ecosystem of libraries, frameworks, and tools.
- Platform independence and portability across implementations.
Java is commonly used for enterprise applications, backend services, big data processing, scientific applications, and Android app development. Its maturity, portability, and extensive ecosystem make Java well-suited for large long-term projects. Java consistently ranks amongst the top 3 languages in popularity indices like Tiobe and IEEE Spectrum.
Head-to-Head Features Comparison Between Golang vs Java
|Very fast and efficient
|Fast but not as efficient as Golang
|Built-in concurrency using goroutines
|Threads for concurrency
|Compiles to standalone binary
|Compiles to bytecode that requires JVM
|Has garbage collector
|Has garbage collector
|Simple and easy to read
|Verbose syntax with lots of boilerplate
|No null values
|Has null values
|Uses JAR/WAR files and Maven
|Write once, run anywhere with JVM
|Excellent for scalability
|Massive open source community
|Easy to learn
|Steeper learning curve
|IDEs and Tooling
|Fewer mature IDEs
|Many full-featured IDEs
Core Comparison of Golang vs Java
Performance and Speed: Golang and Java
Performance is a key differentiating factor between Java and Golang. Golang code compiles directly to native machine code, eliminating any virtual machine overhead. It results in faster startup times and better runtime performance than Java’s JIT-compiled bytecode running on the JVM.
Some benchmarks suggest Golang has 2-10x faster compilation speeds and up to 1.5x runtime speed compared to Java. Its performance advantage makes Go suitable for building lightweight services with fast startups and low latency requirements. Though, JVM optimizations and JIT compilation enable Java to reach near-native speeds in peak performance.
The 2022 Tech Empower benchmarks for web application frameworks show Golang web servers like FastHTTP and Air performing better than Java servers like Micronaut and Spring. For CPU-intensive tasks, Golang matched Java’s performance in a series of benchmarks done by Julia Ferraioli.
So, while “Go” generally has better-perceived performance, the gap with highly optimized Java code isn’t so stark. For most common workloads, the performance advantage may not be the determining factor.
Concurrency: Java vs Golang
Both Go and Java have built-in concurrency constructs as multi-core processors are ubiquitous. Go has lightweight concurrency based on the Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) model. Goroutines provide a simple abstraction for concurrent tasks while channels synchronize their communication.
Java uses threads for concurrency and synchronization primitives like locks, monitors, semaphores, etc. Threads have more overhead compared to goroutines. So v makes it easier to create massively concurrent programs.
However, Java has robust concurrency frameworks like Akka and utilities in java.util.concurrent. It also has actors for Erlang-style concurrency. So, both languages support scalable concurrency, but Go’s approach is more lightweight and programmer-friendly.
Developer Productivity: Golang vs Java
Golang and Java take different approaches to developer productivity. Go enforces a clean, minimalist design omitting classes, inheritance, and other complexities present in Java and C++. The uniform syntax, standard formatting (gofmt), and emphasis on simplicity enable faster comprehension and development times.
Java provides abundant tools, a rich set of high-quality libraries, and IDEs like IntelliJ, Eclipse, and NetBeans that improve programmer productivity. But Java applications often use complex frameworks and build tools which can slow down development.
Both languages have their trade-offs. Go’s simplicity means developers need to implement common data structures and algorithms instead of reusing optimized libraries. But Java’s comprehensive ecosystem results in enterprise software complexity that Go deliberately avoids.
Use Cases and Adoption: Golang VS. Java
The differences between Golang and Java make them suitable for different application domains. Go Excels for networked and distributed systems like cloud-native microservices, DevOps tooling, site reliability engineering, etc. Its ease of use and performance explains its popularity among startups and tech giants.
Java powers enterprise applications and backend services which demand stability, scalability, and mature frameworks. The Android ecosystem also predominantly uses Java and Kotlin as first-class languages. According to all language popularity rankings, Java enjoys much wider adoption than overall.
On stack Overflow and developer surveys, go usage exceeds Java for microservices, cloud-native development, DevOps tooling, and similar domains. But Java leads for mobile, web, and enterprise application development. Both languages have large active open-source communities on GitHub as well.
Final Thoughts on Golang vs Java
Golang and Java are mature programming languages powering modern software. Both benefit from extensive libraries, tools, and learning resources built over decades of usage. Go’s simplicity, concurrency support, and lean runtime make it ideal for the cloud-native paradigm. Java provides portability, breadth of functionality, and ecosystem maturity.
The decision depends on the use case – low-latency microservices and CLI tools benefit from Go while Java suits enterprise applications. For general backend web development, either language can excel in the right hands. Knowing their complementary strengths allows them to select the best language for the job. Their open-source nature and large communities indicate that Go and Java will remain prominent languages for years to come.
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Amelie Lamb is an experienced technical content writer at SoftwareStack.co who specializes in distilling complex software topics into clear, concise explanations. She has a talent for taking dense technical jargon and making it engaging and understandable for readers through her informative, lively writing style.